Energy Facts: (Worldwide)
World energy consumption
is expected to increase 40% to 50% by the
year 2010, and the global mix of fuels--renewables
(18%), nuclear (4%), and fossil (78%)--is
projected to remain substantially the same
as today; thus global carbon dioxide emissions
would also increase 50% to 60%. Among industrialized
and developing countries, Canada consumes
per capita the most energy in the world, and
Italy consumes the least among industrialized
Developing countries use 30% of global energy.
Rapid population growth, combined with economic
growth, will rapidly increase that percentage
in the next 10 years.
The World Bank estimates that investments
of $1 trillion will be needed in this decade
and upwards of $4 trillion during the next
30 years to meet developing countries' electricity
Traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, crop
residues, and animal dung, remain the primary
energy source for more than 2 billion people.
In 1991, Americans spent
about $1,975 per person on all energy purchases.
This represents about 7.7% of the U.S. gross
domestic product. For comparison, in 1991
Americans spent about $2,280 per capita for
housing and about $2,565 for medical needs.
Per capita, the United States ranks second
in worldwide energy consumption among the
America uses about 15 times more energy per
person than does the typical developing country.
The United States spends about $440 billion
annually for energy. Energy costs U.S. consumers
$200 billion and U.S. manufacturers $100 billion
The U.S. industrial sector consumed 39% of
the nation's energy in 1990. In 1990, commercial
buildings accounted for nearly 11% of U.S.
total energy consumption.
Residential appliances, including heating
and cooling equipment and water heaters, consume
90% of all energy used in the U.S. residential
Today, 36% of U.S. energy is consumed in electricity
generation. By 2010, that will rise to 41%.
The transportation sector consumed 35% of
the nation's energy in 1990; this sector is
97% dependent on petroleum.
A decrease of only 1% in
industrial energy use would save the equivalent
of about 55 million barrels of oil per year,
worth about $1 billion.
Within 15 years, renewable energy could be
generating enough electricity to power 40
million homes and offset 70 days of oil imports.
Natural gas supplies the equivalent of 35
million barrels of oil each day, and its use
is growing more rapidly than that of any other
According to analyses in
2000 by DOE and the American Council for an
Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), standards
reduced U. S. electricity use by approximately
88 billion kilowatt-hours, or about 2. 5 %
of U. S. electricity use. The existing standards
also reduced peak demand in 2000 by about
21,000 megawatts, the equivalent of 42 500-MW
plants. DOE estimates that the standards have
saved enough natural gas over their lifetime
to heat 19 million typical U. S. homes for
a year. The 2004 water heater standards are
projected to increase the efficiency of electric
water heaters by 4%, and gas water heaters
Over the 1990-2000 period, standards reduced
consumer energy bills by approximately $ 50
billion. A 2003 study by Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory and ACEEE found that the
standards will reduce residential energy consumption
and carbon dioxide emissions by 8-9% in 2020
compared to the levels expected without standards.
The estimated cumulative net present value
of consumer benefit amounts to nearly $ 80
billion by 2015, and grows to $ 130 billion
by 2030. (This value estimates the benefits
of measure into the future, minus its costs
and adjusted for inflation.) The overall benefit/cost
ratio of cumulative consumer impacts from
1987 to 2050 is nearly three to one.
- Research Report
sets new targets for energy efficiency:
Industry now needs to rise
to the challenge
14th February 2002
The Government's Performance and Innovation
Unit today published its long awaited - and
much leaked - report into the future of energy
policy for the next fifty years. This recognition
of the central importance of energy efficiency
to UK's energy policy will lead to a market
transformation in energy efficiency products.
The PIU talk of the need for 'a step change
in energy efficiency' and for energy efficiency
to be 'the centre of a new energy policy'.
The PIU have set a new target of 20% improvement
in energy efficiency by 2010 and a further
20% by 2020.
Achieving this will require a massive market
transformation, increasing from thousands
to millions the number of energy efficient
products sold. Industry will need to manufacture
significantly more energy efficient products
than ever before. The EST has calculated the
number of products required per household
to meet the new 2010 targets.
The Government will be looking to industry
to create the climate for partnership between
the public and private sectors to stimulate
investment, innovation and create new ideas
to exploit this potentially exploding market.
Eoin Lees, Chief Executive of the Energy
Saving Trust says:
'Manufacturers, retailers and energy suppliers
have a huge marketing opportunity to deliver
these new targets. We are looking for partnerships
to deliver this agenda and urge manufacturers
and retailers to take up this opportunity
and deliver what the Government and consumers
Energy Consumption Survey:
In 1994, manufacturers demanded
918 billion kWh of electricity -- up nearly
12 percent from the 1991 estimate of 820 billion
kWh. With the exception of electricity sales
by manufacturers, MECS reports a larger value
for purchases (including transfers in) and
onsite generation in 1994 than in 1991. Purchases
(including transfers in from other establishments)
exceeded 804 billion kWh (718 billion kWh
in 1991) and onsite generation (cogeneration,
renewable and conventional) was 142 billion
kWh (130 billion kWh in 1991). Among the many
factors that may have driven that growth in
electricity use are: increased economic activity,
recovery from the recession of 1991, and electrification
of the manufacturing sector.
Costs of various cooking methods:
assumes $.08/kWh for electricity and $.60/therm
Innovative technologies for
improving energy efficiency in the industry,
buildings and transport sectors also have
an important role to play in improving the
competitiveness of European industry. The
ATLAS studies of these "demand side" sectors
have shown that energy savings of up to 30%
can be achieved in some industrial processes
by the introduction of energy saving technologies,
such as CHP or improved process controls.
Similarly, large savings in building energy
consumption can be achieved by appropriate
combinations of draught proofing, insulation,
and building energy management systems, and
dramatic savings in energy consumption together
with improved services for the users can be
achieved by better facilities for modal switching
leading to lower cost and more efficient freight
transport. All of these energy savings generally
lead to cost savings, which could help European
industries to contain their costs and improve
Commands Norway’s Energy Policy, stresses the
country’s key role in international energy security:
Norway has the highest per
capita electricity consumption in the world.
Almost all Norway's electricity is produced
by hydro generation. No new large-scale hydro-electric
developments are expected. Licences for gas-fired
power plants have been issued. Rules limiting
emissions are consistent with requirements
elsewhere in Europe except that requirements
for nitrogen oxides are stricter than those
in force elsewhere.
information from below sources:
Emerging Energy Efficient Industrial
Energy Consumption by Industrial Process
Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey: (Data
Efficiency Comparing Gas and Electric: http://www.homeenergysaver.lbl.gov/hes/aceee/furnace.htm
Costs and Benefits: http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/enrtdcost.html
IEA Commands Norway’s Energy Policy, stresses
the country’s key role in international energy
Energy Consumption: Residential and Commercial