Heating Technology
General Energy Facts: (Worldwide)

World energy consumption is expected to increase 40% to 50% by the year 2010, and the global mix of fuels--renewables (18%), nuclear (4%), and fossil (78%)--is projected to remain substantially the same as today; thus global carbon dioxide emissions would also increase 50% to 60%. Among industrialized and developing countries, Canada consumes per capita the most energy in the world, and Italy consumes the least among industrialized countries.

Developing countries use 30% of global energy. Rapid population growth, combined with economic growth, will rapidly increase that percentage in the next 10 years.

The World Bank estimates that investments of $1 trillion will be needed in this decade and upwards of $4 trillion during the next 30 years to meet developing countries' electricity needs alone.

Traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, crop residues, and animal dung, remain the primary energy source for more than 2 billion people.

United States

In 1991, Americans spent about $1,975 per person on all energy purchases. This represents about 7.7% of the U.S. gross domestic product. For comparison, in 1991 Americans spent about $2,280 per capita for housing and about $2,565 for medical needs.

Per capita, the United States ranks second in worldwide energy consumption among the industrialized nations.

America uses about 15 times more energy per person than does the typical developing country.

The United States spends about $440 billion annually for energy. Energy costs U.S. consumers $200 billion and U.S. manufacturers $100 billion annually.

The U.S. industrial sector consumed 39% of the nation's energy in 1990. In 1990, commercial buildings accounted for nearly 11% of U.S. total energy consumption.

Residential appliances, including heating and cooling equipment and water heaters, consume 90% of all energy used in the U.S. residential sector.

Today, 36% of U.S. energy is consumed in electricity generation. By 2010, that will rise to 41%.

The transportation sector consumed 35% of the nation's energy in 1990; this sector is 97% dependent on petroleum.


A decrease of only 1% in industrial energy use would save the equivalent of about 55 million barrels of oil per year, worth about $1 billion.

Within 15 years, renewable energy could be generating enough electricity to power 40 million homes and offset 70 days of oil imports.

Natural gas supplies the equivalent of 35 million barrels of oil each day, and its use is growing more rapidly than that of any other major source.

Source: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/EH/EH25900.pdf

Effects of Standards

According to analyses in 2000 by DOE and the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE), standards reduced U. S. electricity use by approximately 88 billion kilowatt-hours, or about 2. 5 % of U. S. electricity use. The existing standards also reduced peak demand in 2000 by about 21,000 megawatts, the equivalent of 42 500-MW plants. DOE estimates that the standards have saved enough natural gas over their lifetime to heat 19 million typical U. S. homes for a year. The 2004 water heater standards are projected to increase the efficiency of electric water heaters by 4%, and gas water heaters by 8%.

Over the 1990-2000 period, standards reduced consumer energy bills by approximately $ 50 billion. A 2003 study by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and ACEEE found that the standards will reduce residential energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by 8-9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without standards. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly $ 80 billion by 2015, and grows to $ 130 billion by 2030. (This value estimates the benefits of measure into the future, minus its costs and adjusted for inflation.) The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts from 1987 to 2050 is nearly three to one.

Source: http://www.cga.state.ct.us/2003/olrdata/et/rpt/2003-R-0520.htm - Research Report

PIU sets new targets for energy efficiency:

Industry now needs to rise to the challenge

14th February 2002

The Government's Performance and Innovation Unit today published its long awaited - and much leaked - report into the future of energy policy for the next fifty years. This recognition of the central importance of energy efficiency to UK's energy policy will lead to a market transformation in energy efficiency products.

The PIU talk of the need for 'a step change in energy efficiency' and for energy efficiency to be 'the centre of a new energy policy'.

The PIU have set a new target of 20% improvement in energy efficiency by 2010 and a further 20% by 2020.

Achieving this will require a massive market transformation, increasing from thousands to millions the number of energy efficient products sold. Industry will need to manufacture significantly more energy efficient products than ever before. The EST has calculated the number of products required per household to meet the new 2010 targets.

The Government will be looking to industry to create the climate for partnership between the public and private sectors to stimulate investment, innovation and create new ideas to exploit this potentially exploding market.

Eoin Lees, Chief Executive of the Energy Saving Trust says:

'Manufacturers, retailers and energy suppliers have a huge marketing opportunity to deliver these new targets. We are looking for partnerships to deliver this agenda and urge manufacturers and retailers to take up this opportunity and deliver what the Government and consumers want'.

Source: http://www.est.co.uk/est/est.html?est-news-item045.html

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey:

In 1994, manufacturers demanded 918 billion kWh of electricity -- up nearly 12 percent from the 1991 estimate of 820 billion kWh. With the exception of electricity sales by manufacturers, MECS reports a larger value for purchases (including transfers in) and onsite generation in 1994 than in 1991. Purchases (including transfers in from other establishments) exceeded 804 billion kWh (718 billion kWh in 1991) and onsite generation (cogeneration, renewable and conventional) was 142 billion kWh (130 billion kWh in 1991). Among the many factors that may have driven that growth in electricity use are: increased economic activity, recovery from the recession of 1991, and electrification of the manufacturing sector.


Energy Costs of various cooking methods:
Electric Oven 350 °F 1 hr. 2.0 KWh $ .16
Convention Oven 325 °F 45 min. 1.39 KWh $ .11
Gas Oven 350 °F 1 hr. 0.9 KWh $ .07
Frying Pan 420 °F 1 hr. 0.9 KWh $ .07
Toaster Oven 425 °F 50 min. 0.95 KWh $ .08
Crockpot 200 °F 7 hr. 0.7 KWh $ .06
Microwave Oven "High" 15 min. 0.36 KWh $ .03
(Table assumes $.08/kWh for electricity and $.60/therm for gas.)
Costs and Benefits:

Innovative technologies for improving energy efficiency in the industry, buildings and transport sectors also have an important role to play in improving the competitiveness of European industry. The ATLAS studies of these "demand side" sectors have shown that energy savings of up to 30% can be achieved in some industrial processes by the introduction of energy saving technologies, such as CHP or improved process controls. Similarly, large savings in building energy consumption can be achieved by appropriate combinations of draught proofing, insulation, and building energy management systems, and dramatic savings in energy consumption together with improved services for the users can be achieved by better facilities for modal switching leading to lower cost and more efficient freight transport. All of these energy savings generally lead to cost savings, which could help European industries to contain their costs and improve their competitiveness.

Source: http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/enrtdcost.html

IEA Commands Norway’s Energy Policy, stresses the country’s key role in international energy security:

Norway has the highest per capita electricity consumption in the world. Almost all Norway's electricity is produced by hydro generation. No new large-scale hydro-electric developments are expected. Licences for gas-fired power plants have been issued. Rules limiting emissions are consistent with requirements elsewhere in Europe except that requirements for nitrogen oxides are stricter than those in force elsewhere.

Source: http://www.iea.org/new/releases/2001/norway01pr.htm

More information from below sources:
Emerging Energy Efficient Industrial Technologies http://www.aceee.org/pubs/ie003.htm

Energy Consumption by Industrial Process

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey: (Data Summaries) http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mecs/mecs94/mecs6.html

Efficiency Comparing Gas and Electric: http://www.homeenergysaver.lbl.gov/hes/aceee/furnace.htm

Costs and Benefits: http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/enrtdcost.html

IEA Commands Norway’s Energy Policy, stresses the country’s key role in international energy security: http://www.iea.org/new/releases/2001/norway01pr.htm

Energy Consumption: Residential and Commercial sectors: http://www.need.org/needpdf/CONSUMPTIONSecondary.pdf
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